University of Iowa Health Care

Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences

Limbal Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC)

Contributor: Zachary Q. Mortensen, MD; Anthony T. Chung, MD; A. Tim Johnson, MD

Photographer: D. Brice Critser, CRA, OCT-C


  • Cornea/External Eye Disease

Posted January 30, 2020

Limbal Horner-Trantas dots apparent on a 54-year-old African American male the setting of vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

Limbal Horner-Trantas dots

Limbal Horner-Trantas dots

Related: Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis: 8-year-old asthmatic male with reduced vision


  1. Koczman J, Oetting TA: Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis: 8-year-old asthmatic male with reduced vision. June 25, 2007; Available from:

Limbal Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

Contributor: David W Hayes, DO, US Military Flight Surgeon

Category: External Disease

Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

Severe VKC in a 17-year-old Afghani Male. Note the very large "cobblestone" papillae of the superior tarsal conjunctiva in both lids.

Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

In this image, the concurrent bulbar conjunctival injection and limbal conjunctivitis is evident beneath the lid (see related EyeRounds case

Limbal vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC)

Contributor: Jesse Vislisel, MD

Photographer: Stefani Karakas, CRA

Posted November 27, 2013

Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a seasonal disorder, predominantly seen in male children with a history of atopy, which results in inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva. Limbal VKC is most common in children of African or Asian descent and may occur alone or in combination with palpebral VKC. Clinical features include Horner-Trantas dots (raised, white accumulations of eosinophils at the limbus), gelatinous limbal follicles, and copious amounts of mucoid discharge.

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Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

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last updated: 1-30-2020
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